This test provides a way to evaluate the concentration, structure and motility of spermatozoa. The semen analysis may result in one of the following diagnoses: astenozoospermy (significant decrease of spermatozoon motility), teratozoospermy (more than half of the spermatozoa have structure abnormalities) and oligozoospermy (very low concentration of spermatozoa). The reproduction specialist will counsel you regarding possible treatment methods. The most common infertility treatment in the cases mentioned above is an artificial insemination procedure using ICSI (injecting spermatozoa into the egg cell). In the laboratory under the microscope the most motile and morphologically appropriate spermatozoa are selected; then those spermatozoa are injected into the egg cell using a thin needle. In rare cases involving very low production of spermatozoa, a testicular biopsy may be performed. Spermatozoa obtained during this biopsy may be used for the ICSI procedure.
Norm by WHO standards
Non less than 2 ml
White, grayish, yellowish
Dropping, drop up 2 cm
10 – 40 min
7.2 - 8.0
Quantity of spermatozoa in 1ml
More than 20 M
Quantity of spermatozoa in ejaculate
More than 40 M
Progressive motile – more than 32%
Total count pf motile spermatozoa – more than 40%
Round cell concentration
Cells of spermatogenesis: leucocytes, macrophages, epithelial cells, immature generative cells
Up to 2%
Adhesion of spermatozoa
Build of spermatozoa
Quantity of normal spermatozoa is more than 4%
Determination of antispermal antibodies for an exception of immunological cause of male infertility
For ejaculate with normal, motility, morphology, and amount of sperm, the term “normozoospermia” is used.
There are several types of changes in semen analysis: reducing the total amount of sperm (oligozoospermia), impairment of motility (asthenozoospermia), and changes in sperm morphology (teratoozospermia). However, most often encountered in clinical practice is combined pathology, oligoastenoteratozoospermia (OAT), which is the most common cause of male infertility.
About 10-15% of males suffering from infertility have azoospermia – absolute absence of spermatozoon in the ejaculate.
In all the above described cases, you need to make semen analysis not earlier than 1-2 weeks after recovery in order to normalize the clinical and laboratory parameters for the complete removal of drugs from the body.
It is also recommended to limit excessive and prolonged physical activity before the analysis, as the overwork of the body, the accumulation of lactic acid in the muscles and a decline of testosterone level can cause poor semen parameters.
Stresses, lack of sleep and emotional overload can cause hormonal background disorders of the patient due to the increase of impulsation in the nervous system.
It is recommended to make the semen analysis directly in the clinic for the reliability of research in order to avoid false worsening due to various physical factors during transportation.
You need to read carefully the instruction to the end before the analysis and to follow it strictly.
If the material is obtained out of clinic, it should be delivered for one hour, keeping the temperature conditions (20-400 C) and must not be cooled below 100 C.