Stem cells are the starting point, the first immature cells, capable of self-renewal and transformation in different tissues. Stem cells can be called the ancestor of all human organs and providers of new cells. Stem cells - universal "building blocks" that may form by dividing similar cells or other cell types – from neurons of the brain and blood cells, to intestinal tissue cells and other internal organs.
Stem cells are located in all organs and tissues of a person throughout their life - both before and after birth. However, the presence of these cells and their ability to differentiate is significantly higher in a young organism, and the largest reserve of stem cells is located in the organism of a newborn. Over the years, their reserve is getting exhausted, as the stem cells are used when fighting against infections, diseases, injuries, and the negative influence of the environment. And as the reserve of stem cells of an adult human is insignificant, it means that a weakened or injured organism cannot deal with the updating of the damaged or lost cells by itself. This is where medicine comes to the rescue. At the current stage of the development of medical science, scientists can "activate" the stem cells and send them "back on track". Then the stem cells fulfil their basic function given by nature – to help restore damaged tissue and replace old and dying cells, preventing premature ageing.