Paternal RHD zygosity test

Rhesus factor (Rh) is a protein located on the surface of red blood cells (erythrocytes) in the majority of the population. These people are called Rh positive (Rh+). If these proteins are absent on the surface of red blood cells, the person is Rh-negative (Rh-). The gene that is responsible for the Rh factor is genetically inherited from both parents. Rhesus-negative individuals inherit both from the mother and from the father a negative, or "-" allele ("--"). Rhesus-positive carry at least one "+" Rh gene: "++" or "+ -". Rh incompatibility can occur if Rh-negative ("--") woman is waiting for Rh-positive child. In this case, the immunoglobulin injection at the 28th week of pregnancy and after the birth of a child is recommended for the prevention of Rh incompatibility.
  • If the partner is Rh-, Rh incompatibility does not occur, since all children of this pair will also be Rh-.
  • If the partner is Rh+, Paternal RHD zygosity determination is necessary to find out the genetic status of the Rh+ partner ( "++" or "+ -").
  • If the partner is Rh+("++", homozygous), all the descendants of this pair will be Rh+ and during each pregnancy Rh-immunoglobulin prophylaxis is indicated.
  • If the partner is Rh+ ("+ -", heterozygous), 50% of the descendant of this pair will have Rh- blood group, at which immunoprophylaxis is not needed, but in 50% of cases the expected child will be Rh+, and then an immunoglobulin injection will be required. In such cases, it is recommended to check the Rh factor of the expected child during each subsequent pregnancy in order to make a decision about the need for immunoprophylaxis.
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